The longsword versus the katana? The medieval knight versus the feudal Japanese samurai? The katana versus the rapier?
These are, of course, questions with no easy answers. The people today are different from those of the past, likewise, the skills, the lifestyles, the mentality, physiques and more.
This train of thought was prompted by a Neal Stephenson article where he thought that the rapier would probably win.
*Thank you Ethan for the link.